GATE 2021 Syllabus for Biomedical Engineering (BM) [New] – Download PDF

GATE Biomedical Engineering Syllabus 2021 – Candidates can check on this page the GATE Biomedical Engineering Syllabus. The syllabus of GATE 2021 varies for all the 27 papers. Talking about the BM syllabus, there are 10 broad sections in the syllabus. Each broad section has topics from which 55 questions are asked in the exam. The rest 10 questions are from the General Aptitude Section, the syllabus for which is also available below on this page. The candidates are advised to stick to the topics in the syllabus as it is officially prescribed and no topics other than those in the syllabus PDF are asked in GATE.

GATE 2021 Syllabus for Biomedical Engineering

The syllabus for the Biomedical Engineering subject includes topics like Engineering Mathematics, Electrical Circuits, Signals and Systems, Analog and Digital Electronics, Measurements and Control Systems, Sensors, and Bio-instrumentation, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Biomechanics, Medical Imaging Systems, and Biomaterials. The syllabus of all the 27 subjects in GATE 2021 is available on the official website of IIT Bombay. Check the detailed syllabus below –

Engineering Mathematics:

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss, and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order linear and nonlinear differential equations, higher-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of separation of variables, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations. Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, and integral the formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem.

Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions. Tests of Significance, statistical power analysis, and sample size estimation. Linear Regression and correlation analysis.

Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, numerical solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration.

Electrical Circuits:

Voltage and current sources – independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation; Kirchoff’s laws, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems; Peak, average and rms values of ac quantities; apparent, active and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, realization of basic filters
with R, L and C elements, Bode plot.

Signals and Systems: Continuous and Discrete Signal and Systems – Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Sampling theorem; Laplace and Fourier transforms; impulse response of systems; transfer function, the frequency response of first and second-order linear time-invariant systems,
convolution, correlation. Discrete-time systems – impulse response, frequency response, DFT, Z – transform; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Analog and Digital Electronics: Basic characteristics and applications of the diode, BJT and MOSFET; Characteristics and applications of operational amplifiers – difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, instrumentation amplifier, buffer, filters, and waveform generators. Number systems, Boolean algebra; combinational logic circuits – arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, encoder/decoder, MUX/DEMUX, multi-vibrators; Sequential circuits – latches and flip flops, state diagrams, shift registers and counters; Principles of ADC and DAC; Microprocessor- architecture, interfacing memory, and input-output devices.

Measurements and Control Systems: SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty -accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors; PMMC, MI and dynamometer type instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter. Basics of control system – transfer function.

Sensors and Bioinstrumentation: Sensors – resistive, capacitive, inductive, piezoelectric, Hall effect, electro chemical, optical; Sensor signal conditioning circuits; application of LASER in sensing and therapy. Origin biopotentials and their measurement techniques – ECG, EEG, EMG, ERG, EOG, GSR, PCG, Principles of measuring blood pressure, body temperature, volume and flow in arteries, veins and tissues, respiratory measurements and cardiac output measurement. Operating principle of medical equipment -sphygmomanometer, ventilator, cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator, pulse oximeter, hemodialyzer Electrical Isolation (optical and electrical) and Safety of Biomedical Instruments.

Human Anatomy and Physiology: Basics of the cell, types of tissues and organ systems; Homeostasis; Basics of organ systems – musculoskeletal, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, endocrine, nervous, gastrointestinal, and reproductive.

Medical Imaging Systems: Basic physics, Instrumentation and image formation techniques in medical imaging modalities such as X-Ray, Computed Tomography, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound.

Biomechanics: Kinematics of muscles and joints – free-body diagrams and equilibrium, forces and stresses in joints, biomechanical analysis of joints, Gait analysis; Hard Tissues – Definition of Stress and Strain, Deformation Mechanics, structure and mechanical properties of bone – cortical and cancellous bones; Soft Tissues – Structure, functions, material properties, viscoelastic properties, Maxwell & Voight models; Biofluid mechanics – Flow properties of blood in the intact human cardiovascular system.

Biomaterials: Basic properties of biomaterials – Metallic, Ceramic, Polymeric and Composite; Fundamental characteristics of implants – biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability; Basics of drug delivery; Basics of tissue engineering. Biomaterial characterization techniques – Rheology, Atomic Force Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

GATE General Aptitude (GA) Syllabus

The General Aptitude syllabus remains common in all the subject papers of GATE. There re 10 questions asked from this section, and the rest 55 questions are based on the Biomedical Engineering Syllabus. The GA section includes topics like:

Verbal  Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning, and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning, and data interpretation

GATE 2021 Biomedical Engineering Exam Pattern

GATE 2021 exam can be a tough nut to crack. Candidates are required to do focused study in a planned manner. Before you start the preparation for Biomedical Engineering subject GATE 2021 you must analyze the exam pattern and the marking scheme of the exam so that you know what to expect in the exam in terms of the number of questions, marks, etc. in advance.

Question TypeDistribution of MarksTotal MarksQuestion Format
General Aptitude 
(common for all subjects)
5 questions of 1 mark each
5 questions of 2 marks each
15 marksMCQ
BM-Based questions25 questions of 1 mark each
30 questions of 2 marks each
85 marksMCQ and NAT
  • The duration of the exam is 3 hours.
  • There are a total of 65 questions in the examination carrying 100 marks.
  • There are two kinds of questions in the GATE exam, MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions) and NAT (Numerical Answer Type) Questions.
  • There is negative marking in the MCQ section of the exam.
  • The question paper is in the English language only.

Marking scheme:

Question TypeNegative Marking for wrong answersMarks for a correct answer
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)⅓ for 1 mark question⅔ for 2 marks question1 or 2 marks
Numerical Answer Type (NAT)No Negative Marking1 or 2 marks

How to Prepare For Biomedical Engineering?

Your preparation for GATE 2021 should be done in a planned manner. Biomedical Engineering is a new subject so you should prepare more rigorously. The first step in any exam preparation is to go through the exam pattern and syllabus carefully. Next, you have to build a good strategy that will be your blueprint for your preparation. Make a study time-table that will keep your preparation in check. Follow the strategy and the study time-table sincerely. We have discussed important steps and tips below that you can go through and keep in mind during your preparation.

Concept Clarity  

When you prepare a particular topic, make sure that you understand it well. Concept clarity is really important in sections like Mathematics. If your basics are weak then you will lose marks even in the scoring question. That can cost you a lot in the exam. So be sure that your foundation is strong enough that you can tackle even the tricky questions.

Prepare for Each Section

General Aptitude

  • It’s weightage along with Mathematics is around 15%. This section can be scoring if you have prepared well enough.
  • You have to prepare on a daily basis for general aptitude as the sections tests your verbal and numerical aptitude which cannot be gained in a day. 
  • Solve at least 10 aptitude questions so that you don’t get the burden of practicing it all in just a few days. 
  • Start preparing for this section from the beginning.


  • This section is comparatively vast than others. Prepare for this section topic-wise. Distribute your preparations in small parts so that it can be completed easily. 
  • Practice is the only way that will help you score in Mathematics. Practice as much as you can ad try questions of all difficulty levels. 

Subject-wise questions

  • The subject-wise questions will be of more weightage compared to others. You have to be familiar with all the topics of Biomedical Engineering and prepare them well.
  • Complete the easy topics and the topics with more weightage first. Pay more time and attention to the topics that you are weak in. 
  • Make running notes while preparing for the topics. Make them short and precise. These notes will come in handy during your revision. 

Complete the syllabus

Try to complete the preparation of the entire syllabus in 4-5 months. That means if you start preparing from now then your preparation should be over by the end of November. Try not to leave any topic or subtopic in the syllabus. If you feel that you won’t be able to complete your syllabus by November then it means you have to work on your speed and accuracy. Both the factors are important not only during the examination but also during your preparation for GATE 2020. 

Practice Mocks

After you have completed your preparation, you should move on to solving the mock tests or online test series. Our toppers suggest taking weekly mocks, topic-wise mocks and monthly mocks. This will help you to continuously monitor your preparation. The topic-wise mocks will help you in detecting the weak topics that you have to work on more. Weekly and monthly mocks will keep you aware of the speed of your preparation and will help you practice time management. Also, practice previous year question papers a lot. Take the last 5 years’ question papers. Practicing them will give you a fair idea about what types of questions have been coming over the last few years. Analyze the pattern of the exam and prepare accordingly.

Do Revision 

Assuming that you have completed your preparation by November, the last two months will be solely for your revision. Revise all the important topics and mock tests that you took. You can also take help from the notes that you made during preparation. It is practically impossible to revise each and every topic in depth. Notes will make it easier for you to revise all the important topics in short. 

Books for Preparation

Your preparation should be done from trusted sources only. Pick up books from renowned authors and publications. Try to study several books and prepare from them well. You can also take help from the study material available online like test series and sample papers, etc. For more study material, you can take the help of the study materials provided by good coaching centers. We have suggested a few books for your GATE 2020 Preparation. You can have a look at them below. 

                                                    Books for General Aptitude Section

S.No                              Title of the book               Author’s nameLInks
1.Objective English for Competitive ExaminationsHari Mohan Prasad, Uma Rani SinhaGet Here
2.Verbal and Non-Verbal ReasoningR.S AggarwalGet Here
3.Quantitative AptitudeHarianthGet Here

                                                   Books for Subject-wise questions Section

S.No                              Title of the book                Author’s nameLinks
1.Fundamentals of Biomedical EngineeringG.S SawhneyGet Here
2.Intro to Biomedical EngineeringDomachGet Here

What is Biomedical Engineering?

Biomedical Engineering (BM) merges the application of both principles of Engineering and design concepts of medicine for healthcare purposes. In the Biomedical field, researchers with expertise in diverse areas, work towards creating products and techniques for better health care. It covers the gap between these two fields by mixing the skills of an engineer with that of the medical-biological sciences to achieve advance healthcare treatment. Biomedical Engineering has been emerging as an individual discipline. It is considered one of the youngest disciplines in engineering and has made noticeable progress over the last four years. Most of the work in BM includes research and development, enveloping a broad array of fields.

M.Tech understudies have to be do a significant sum of course work within the to begin with two semesters to complement their UG or Master’s level of instruction. In the third semester, students do M.Tech project although some courses might be taken during that period. In the fourth semester, students work towards the completion of the project. The curriculum is designed in a way to provide a background of Biomedical Engineering along with more specific knowledge in the area of student’s choice. Electives taken during the last two semesters impart specialized knowledge in the area of the student’s interest.

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